Characteristics of Poverty: Incidence, Change, and Correlates. Fifth in the series, What the 1990 Census Says About Minnesota.
Over the 1980s the incidence of poverty in Minnesota increased. By the 1989 about one in ten Minnesotans lived in poverty. The vast majority were White, but White's as a group had the lowest poverty rate of all the races, about a fifth the rate of American Indians and a quarter of the rate of African Americans. The keys to avoiding poverty are clear: work and productive attributes, such as education and English language proficiency. Some Minnesota households are more likely to be poor than others, particularly single-mother households. Here again, employment and education are very important in keeping the household out of poverty. It would have required 0.7 percent of 1990 state income to move all Minnesotans out of poverty, both a lower percentage and a lower dollar amount than a decade earlier. This indicates that while poverty became more common over the decade it also became less severe.